by: Charles O’Dale
- IMPACT CRATER/STRUCTURE IDENTIFICATION – Geologic confirmation for an impact event:
– GEOMORPHOLOGY – One of the first indicators of a possible impact site is “circular geology”.
– SHATTER CONES/SLICKENSIDES – Shatter cones are distinctive striated conical fractures that are considered unequivocal evidence of impact events.
– BRECCIA – Breccias are extremely common in the central uplift, in crater-fill deposits, and in the ejecta blanket of meteorite impact craters.
– FRACTURED ROCK – While travelling toward impact sites I documented fractured rocks increasing in magnitude as we neared the crater site.
– GRAVITY ANOMALIES – Gravity contours illustrate anomalies caused by fractured country rock under an impact site.
– MAGNETIC ANOMALIES – Magnetic studies document the magnetic disturbances within impact structures.
– SHOCK METAMORPHOSIM – The extreme pressures and temperatures at hypervelocity impacts have caused shock metamorphic effects on target rocks.
– CRATER EJECTA – When the crater formation process ends, the resulting circular structure and the surrounding area is covered by an ejecta blanket.
– TEKTITE – Tektites are small, glassy pebble-like objects that form during meteorite impact. They represent droplets of molten target rock that are ejected up into the Earth’s atmosphere, which then fall back to the surface up to several hundred kilometers from where their source impact crater. They often acquire aerodynamic shapes as they fly through the atmosphere
– CRATER RIM – Documentation of surviving crater rims on this planet.
– CRATER STRUCTURE – Why are impact craters almost always round? (or polygonal)?
- DATING – IMPACT GEOLOGY:
– CRATERS,– GEOLOGIC,– IMPACT MELTS AND GLASSES,– ISOCHRON,– RADIOMETRIC DATING,– TEKTITES, and– DATING GLOSSARY.
- CRATER FORMATION – Impact involves the transfer of massive amounts of energy to a relatively small area of the Earth’s surface, in an extremely short period of time (Kinetic energy). Three stages of crater formation:
– contact & compression;– excavation; and– modification.
- CRATER CLASSIFICATION – On this planet, impact craters are divided into three basic morphologic subdivisions:
– simple craters;– complex craters; and– peak ring craters.
- PLANET VS CRATER SIZE – The primary factors governing the size and shape of impact craters are:
– impact energy;– gravity; and– properties of the target.
- GLOSSARY – IMPACT CRATER/STRUCTURE
– impact crater glossary; and– reference.
– introduction– meteorite categories;– dating meteorites;– meteorite glossary; and– reference.
- CANADIAN CRATERS – Documented in 1967 & 1975.
Osinski G. The Geological Record of Meteorite Impacts Canadian Space Agency 2018