My exploration and documentation of craters (presently only on this planet).
CARSWELL IMPACT STRUCTURE
CARSWELL IMPACT STRUCTURE
Type: Peak ring
Age ma: 115 ± 10 a
Diameter: 39 b km
Location: N 58° 27’ W 109° 30’
Shock Metamorphism: shatter cones, planar deformation features (PDFs), pseudotachylyte veins, impact melts and breccias.
a Dating Method: Ar-Ar methods, the step-wise heating data, gives 115 Ma for the age of the Carswell structure (Grieve 2006). Research suggests that the Carswell event is older than the deposition of the Athabasca Basin (Duhamel et al 2005).
b it may be a local expression of a larger multi-ring impact structure hidden beneath the sediments (Duhamel et al 2005).
Using both Rondot’s and Grieve’s models for complex impact structure, the central uplift (38km) considered to be underneath the annular dolomitic unit would suggest a crater size in the basement of 118 to 125 km wide. This value is a minimal one and fits data from paleocurrents and isopach maps done by Ramaekers on the Athabasca Basin (Duhamel et al 2004).
The Carswell crater is the largest known impact crater in Saskatchewan and 4th-largest in Canada. A chain of small lakes trending from southwest to northeast has formed along the rim in this location. Shatter cone fragments from the crystalline core at Carswell confirms a cosmic impact event (Grieve 2006).
The Cretaceous was a period with a relatively warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels and creating numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now extinct marine reptiles, ammonites and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. At the same time, new groups of mammals and birds, as well as flowering plants, appeared. The Cretaceous ended with a large mass extinction, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, in which many groups, including non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and large marine reptiles, died out. The end of the Cretaceous is defined by the K–Pg boundary, a geologic signature associated with the mass extinction which lies between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras.
The Carswell structure in the western Athabasca Basin, northern Saskatchewan (Canada), has previously been interpreted as an eroded impact structure with a minimum diameter of ~36 km, the outer margin of which is broadly defined by an outer ring of sediments composed of the only algal reefs observed in the Athabasca Group, the Carswell Formation. This ring surrounds an 18-km-wide uplifted basement core composed of gneiss units of Archean to Paleoproterozoic age that display shatter cones, planar deformation features (PDFs), pseudotachylyte veins, and impact melts and breccias (Cluff melt sheet, Cluff breccias) indicating that pressures and temperatures locally exceeded 60 GPa and 1500 °C.
Detailed analysis of the basement–Athabasca Group contact from field and drill core samples indicates that shock features are not present in the Athabasca Group sediments in direct contact with the highly shocked basement gneisses. This pattern is inconsistent with a post–Athabasca Group age for the impact. Moreover, our study has revealed PDF-bearing quartz grains in basal units of the Athabasca Group 14 km south of the southern edge of the basement core (outside the estimated outer ring). The new proposed model suggests that the impact event is of pre-Athabasca (Proterozoic) age and that it produced a multiring structure that controlled the paleogeography of the Athabasca Group units in the western part of the basin. The model is well supported by basin analysis and gravity data. The Carswell Formation is the result of algal reefs building on peak-ring–related seamounts at the end of Athabasca Group deposition. The overturned bedding observed locally adjacent to the basement core is interpreted as the result of gravity-driven readjustment of the central uplift (Abstract – Genest et al 2010).
The Carswell structure has been highly eroded. The principal morphological element is a ring of small hills -50 m high, with an inner diameter of 30 km and an outer diameter of -40 km. These represent upturned beds of erosionally resistant rocks. There is a central core of swampy ground with a diameter of 18 km. At the contact between the crystalline rocks of the core and upturned sediments, uranium deposits are mined.
Low relief area in the Canadian Shield. Area is sparsely forested and has been glaciated. The target rocks are metamorphosed sediments overlying crystalline rocks.
The gravity field of Carswell is remarkably similar to that produced by the Vredefort ring structure in South Africa (Maree 1944 & Innes 1964).
The Athabasca basin, a historical shallow tropical sea basin filled with sediments from the Hudsonian mountains. The Athabasca basin was formed during the Statherian or Paleohelikian 1.7 to 1.6 billion years ago when coarse fluvial and marine clastic sediments were laid down containing gold, copper, lead, zinc, and uranium oxides. The highest grade uranium deposits in the world are found at the unconformity between these clastic layers and the Precambrian bedrock. The Athabasca Sand Hills protected by The Athabasca Sand Dunes Provincial Park are unique feature of the Canadian shield. The hills are located in northern Saskatchewan and border Lake Athabasca, which straddles the Alberta and Saskatchewan border.